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The Arctic At A Glance

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GREENLAND'S NORTHERN LIGHTS Aurora displays occur when protons and electrons from the sun slam into the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in an awe-inspiring dance of multi-coloured lights across the night sky. The Northern Lights in Greenland tend to be green, white and purple, and can sometimes be viewed during the month of September. ARCTIC CIRCLE GREENLANDIC CULTURE A visit to Ittoqqortoormiit, the most isolated town in Greenland, is a window into the daily life of a remote community where many inhabitants still hunt and fish to continue their traditional heritage. ANCIENT HISTORY & CULTURE Visiting local communities in the Canadian Arctic connects travelers to 4,000 years of history and culture. Pangnirtung, Pang for short, is an artistic community known for its beautiful hand-woven tapestries and lithographic prints. MILLIONS OF BIRDS The Látrabjarg Sea Cliffs, a 7 mile stretch of towering cliffs (up to 1,443 feet high) is famous for the millions of birds that nest along the majestic cliff-tops. UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE Ilulissat Iceord, a tidal ord and UNESCO World Heritage site, is home to Sermeq Kujalleq, one of the fastest and most active glaciers in the world. THE KING OF THE ARCTIC Although a polar bear's fur appears white, it is actually a layer of transparent hair with special characteristics that create the illusion of white fur. A polar bear's skin is black. An optimal time to view polar bears in Spitsbergen is during the months of June and July. ROCKY PHENOMENON Discover a rare geological phenomenon at Champ Island in Franz Josef Land archipelago, the northernmost territory in Russia. Stone spheres found here likely formed when masses of minerals came in contact with organic material, creating a chemical reaction shaping the ball in layers, often as perfect spheres. THE ULTIMATE ARCTIC ADVENTURE Even during the Arctic summer, it takes the strength of a nuclear ice-breaker to reach the North Pole. ARCTIC ARCHIPELAGO Novaya Zemlya, "New Land", is the third largest wilderness area in Europe. This remote Russian destination is abundant in wildlife and steeped in polar history. The Arctic is a mass of sea ice floating over the Arctic Ocean, surrounded by North America, Europe and Asia. Use this infographic to help narrow down your choices of where to explore. 1930 Arctic fox, walrus, muskox, reindeer, polar bear, whales, birds & more. ICONIC ARCTIC WILDLIFE From spotting polar bears in Spitsbergen, to sightings of muskoxen in Greenland, the Arctic is teeming with diverse wildlife. Here are some of the animals you may see: SVALBARD RUSSIA ICELAND CANADA GREENLAND (Kalaallit Nunaat) The Arctic AT A GLANCE EXPLORING SVALBARD About 60% of Svalbard's mountains, glaciers and islands are protected within seven national parks: Forlandet, Indre Wijdeorden, Nordenskiöld Land, Nordre Isorden, Sassen- Bünsow Land, Sør-Spitsbergen and Nordvest-Spitsbergen. Visitors can find various historical monuments including former whaling stations and burial grounds. FROZEN IN TIME Axel Heiberg Island, Canada's second northernmost island, located 745 miles (1,200 km) from the North Pole, is known for its unusual fossilized forest, which dates back to the Eocene period, which lasted from about 56 to 34 million years ago. THE HEART OF THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE The quest for trade routes to the Far East ignited the passions and obsessions of early explorers. Discover the great sea route at the top of the world. EVOLUTION OF THE KAYAK It's believed that kayaks were invented in Greenland. The Inuit used the slim, one- person vessel—called qajaq—to hunt and fish. It's only fitting that Quark Expeditions chose Greenland to launch a brand new kind of kayaking—alpine kayaking—as part of our Greenland Adventure Program. THE LAST TERRITORIAL DISCOVERY ON THE PLANET The rarely-visited, extremely remote Russian archipelago Severnaya Zemlya, "Northern Land," was only discovered in 1917 and not charted until 1930–32. Severnaya Zemlya is home to the Academy of Sciences Glacier, the largest glacier in Russia. MAMMOTH CLIFFS Approximately 110 bird species nest in the towering cliffs of the Faroe Islands. Cape Enniberg, which stands at 2,400 feet (754 m) high, is one of the highest cliffs in the world. TASERMIUT FJORD Paddling and Zodiac excursions into the ord allow for closer connection with a landscape that is considered one of the most beautiful places in Greenland.

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